Medical Doctor, Acupuncturist, Nutritionist, Italy
Received: October 29, 2018; Published: November 04, 2018
Citation: Dıvrak DD (2018) Diet Basis. J Nutr Diet Suppl 2(1): 102
In this article i will summarize all the basis that are fundamental to eat well, right, pleasantly too.
The world diet comes from the word diaita, an ancient greek term meaning lifestyle: so we understand that when we eat we should always follow rules, about quality and about quantity of the food. I will then talk about mediterrenean diet, about traditional chinese medicine principles, and some other tips that can be important to get.
In conclusion we can say that living better also means following a diet, not only to loose weight but also to get the better elements into our body and mind.
As i said, it is important to eat in conscious way: we can not only go at the supermarket when we are hungry and get the nearest and colorful foods we find, probably also buying sodas and hinding-sugars food. We should go back to our origins too, when people ate naturally and they were in fit and healthier. It is great to get the more info that we can and apply our knowledge daily.
There are lot of tendencies and food fashion that are more and more emerging: what we can say is that diet should be personalized. As animals instinctively choose what they like, what they need, outdoor at the open air, in the same way we should pick what is best for us.
But how choosing? At first preferring raw foods: vegetables particularly. We should for these reasons keep our house well organized in this direction: keep away rich-in-sugar preserved foods and snack with well cut colored vegetables like carrots (full of vitamin A). If we need more sugar we could base on fructose foods like fruit: and what we must remember is that following seasons is the great habit to have since every season has its own vegs and fruit targets and vitamin or minerals products. Not only, but moreover choosing to follow seasons helps to reduce environment negative impacts and perhaps finding local markets with biological products.
So: 1 prefer natural foods to preserved ones 2 prefer vegetables to fruit 3 prefer fruit to packaged foods 3 prefer drink to eating when possible 4 choose seasonal foods and local biological ones.
Other ideas: always read the labels and 1 avoid preservants 2 choose fibered cereals instead of white ones.
What we also can say is that natural foods are better: since they are more basical and in theory relatively less chalorical. For example the paleo diet is in part follower of these ideas: infact it prefers, like in pre-historical times, all the foods that we find in nature and not those obtained after a working process of the food. Cereals but not pasta at first, raw fats, again vegetables and fruits.
Another in fashion trend is that of the smoothies: it is good, we can stop in these smoothies shops where you can have your just prepared shake done with green vegetables and you pick the vegs you like having in just one minute your ready to drink meal. Some experts say that chewing is basis to digestion, but we can say that drinking the meal is a way to reduce the focus on eating and also that having a drink reduce the digestion time, probably getting absorption and metabolism faster.
There are moreover someother diets: since in theory reducing carbs is a way to reduce chalories, we should increase or the proteic or the fat amount. But this is only partially true. What we can say is that carbohydrates are rich in jing foods: each cereal is a seed, and the seed contains the origin of life, what is needed and essential so that this plant can reproduce: so they are very chalorical. Like nuts, for example, or cocoa in chocolate. They are seeds and they have jing, the vital essence. Carbs contains cereals that are seeds. We should eat carbohydrates but we should remember that they should contain fiber: white bread or basic pasta are not so indicated, particularly in big quantities since we will tend to go in habit condition, being this status called insuline-resistance. In practice the cells reduce the receptors in the cell membrane, since they always are exposed to glucose and to insuline, and we are no more able to metabolise glucose: so it raises in blood staying out of the cell, and it becomes toxic. For these reasons as I wrote, there are balanced diets: like hyperproteic ones for those with a high rate of work out, and hyperlipidic diets that always controlled by a specialist are useful in the first stages of a loosing weight diet. It is true that both of these are able to stimulate a certain quantity of insulin so to reduce the hungriness in the reward system and in hypothalamus centers.
Before of talking about quality, I will talk again about quantity. An average diet is made of 1800-2000 kcal per die. A normal body mass index BMI should be 19-25 but it is not based on the quality of the mass infact we say that an obese and a body builder could have similar bmi. When we want to loose weight we should do diets of about 1400 kcal but not reducing proteins, particularly if we do fitness activities (to calculate with LAF index while prescribing the diet), keeping more or less 70 grams of proteic foods per die.
Now i will talk about mediterrenean diet, of TCM principles, and about reward system.
I said that diet should be personalized since everyone has his own needs: the majority are the same for everyone but the carbs-proteins-fats proportions should vary depending on life time and events, and also the food quality is different in needs according to our chinese organs equilibrium, concluding that also how a food rewards us is a target.
Mediterrenean diet is the basis on which to start for everyone. UNESCO heritage since 2010, studied in past by Ancel
Keys, is so composed
1/ week: sweet foods, red meat
2-3/week: white meat, eggs, cheese, fish
Every day: cereals
More/day: vegetables and fruit, water at need
We see as i said that raw and natural foods are prevalent
TCM diet basis: for traditional chinese medicine the quality of the food is fundamental. It can be hot and yang when the foods bring heat to our body, like for example peppers, it can be neutral if the food is only chalorical, it can be cold and yin when it is source of coldness for our body and mind, for example mynth. We well understand that so diet is personalized since at first we should study the organs equilibrium and find if there are yin yang imbalances, later on choose a diet focused on the subject.
Finally the more personalized diet is that studying the personal effects of foods on that person: how foods impact on you and what is for you more rewarding in a diet. Since we have to live on a diet, diet must be rewarding. Reward system is the complex of neural webs and pathways going from VTA in midbrain until lymbic system (emotions) hypotalamus hypophisis HPA (hormones) and insula until frontal lobes (behaviour). It has been studied by Pavlov in dogs reflexes answering to positive stimuli for behaviours, and later on by Dreher (decision making), Fisher (emotions), Grigson Kennedy (addiction).
We should always apply reward knowledges to diet: 1 what is a rewarding habit for a person should be preserved in the prescribed diet 2 prescribing rewarding foods should be a must. An icecream per week can be good, or a slice of cake for breakfast, some sweet fruit casserole as a break, or a chocolate cream always one per week. If person is rewarded the diet will fit and work.
I can conclude saying that in the article we examined lots of way to eat and diet: quantity is fundamental but also quality. I can for you describe a recipe: cacik the turkish tzatziki: yogurt, well cut cucombers, garlic; it is great as a meal, as a dish, as a salsa. (Suggesting recipes should be a good way to prescribe nutritional plans). And i say that rewarding lifestyles are the key for dieting: good fitness, great affective life and people and family, nice sleep, are always help so diet will be well tolerated and also rewarding.
- 1. Lee-Thorp J, Katzenberg MA (2015) The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Diet. Oxford Handbooks Online.
- 2. Jean-Claude D, Tremblay L (2009) Handbook of Reward and Decision Making. Academic Press.
- 3. Maciocia's TCM principles, Masson.